At the beginning of our era and the merchants of the Roman Empire had already carried on trade in Asian territories. Silk Road connected the Roman Empire with China. After the collapse of the Empire, trade on the Silk Road was resumed in the 13th century. With the beginning of the colonization of Asia in China and Japan started releasing products targeted at the European market. Orders from Europe to China was produced in large quantities, often porcelain which was active on European sketches with the typical Chinese features murals.
Considered the birthplace of ceramics was China. About 2000 b.c. on the territory of China produced clay objects and painted their geometrical shapes.
Names of periods of development of Chinese porcelain match the names of the Chinese ruling dynasties.
Early Japanese ceramics had been influenced by Chinese and Korean traditions. Korean ceramic workshops existed in Japan since the 8th century. Own ceramic production has evolved from the 13th century. At the time, the increased consumption of tea, and a factory in the town of Seto began to copy Chinese ceramics for tea ceremony. In the 15th century, after the conquest of Korea, the island experienced Korean potters were transported. Best items for the tea ceremony, decorated with simple drawings, sometimes artificially aged by the wizards produced in Seto, Kyoto, Sacume, Karatsu until the 19th century. The same family hallmarks were used for several centuries, and to determine the exact age of such articles is difficult.
On the style of Japanese porcelain also influenced Chinese porcelain items. Formula for porcelain was collected by the Japanese in the early 16th century. Centre of porcelain production became the city of Arita, near which were found deposits of kaolin. Here were white porcelain blue underglaze painting, raspisyvavšijsâ. Very much appreciated Japanese porcelain enamelled kakiemon-style. Of porcelain in that style copied by Chelsea, Meissen. Most known Japanese Imari porcelain. Imari-port through which exported wares. He signed with Raven black paint with red and gold leaf.
The Variety of Japanese Porcelain:
Porcelain of the 17th century was named for the port of Imari Arita village nearby. Imari copied in China, Holland and England.
- Dark blue underglaze painting combined with reddish-purple, gold, yellow, green, turquoise and purple sometimes enamel paint.
- All enamel, other than red are on the glaze that you can feel.
- Patterns of major dekoraivnyh products and a dining room offering established painter decor fabrics.
- Later Imari pattern, painted with a mostly red colors.
Kakiemon porcelain is named after the Japanese painter of the 17th century Sakajdy Kakièmona, author of style polychrome painting of porcelain enamel paints. Kakiemon porcelain reached its golden age in the 1680's. Kakiemon porcelain can be distinguished from other Japanese porcelain on the following grounds:
- Milky-white porcelain covered with scarce asymmetrical patterns a crock, enamel red, Orange, blue, turquoise, yellow and sometimes purple flowers.
- Kakiemon porcelain products are small dishes, bowls and vases with gentle patterns.
In Europe the style "Kakiemon" was used at the factories of Meissen, Chantilly, Chelsea, Bow.
This pottery is the name of a Japanese family of potters who worked with the late 19th century near the Satsuma went on. Here are products of cheap rude superb porcelain to skillfully executed pictures with images of warriors. Crockery kinkozan is very similar to sacumu, they are easily confused.
- The products there are cartouches (medallions, inlay), often with images of miniature domestic scenes
- Generous coating of gold leaf, which easily otkalyvaetsâ or erased
- Flower vases, vessels for incense, decorative panels
- Porcelain is usually signed by the artist
Red Kutani Porcelain
Thin as egg shells, porcelain proizvodilâ from about 1880's. Kutani porcelain èksportrovalsâ in large quantities to Europe and the United States. Quality-low to medium.
- Overglaze enamel-painted in a predominantly red-red, sometimes with generous gilding, often with monochrome black or grey details.
- The main motives for painting porcelain red Kutani-figures in a landscape, Geisha, flowers, trees, birds.
Nabesima clan rules Japan area, which was part of the District of Arita. From 1650 to 1870, there izgotolâlas' posda only for family members. Product nabesima are rare and highly valued. Porcelain nabesima differs in the following features:
- Grayish-white flawless porcelain covered with grey or bluish glaze.
- No stamps
- Porcelain decorated with motifs of stylized leaves and flowers.
Satsuma Tangerines Porcelain
Satsuma tangerines from the sixteenth century was a major centre for the production of ceramics. From the mid-19th century, there were mass production for export. Here took place as top-quality porcelain and porcelain very mediocre quality.
- Cream-colored ceramics, glaze "krakle". On top was a thick layer of enamel. On top of this layer was applied gilding.
- The main motives-landscapes, flowers, animals and genre scenes, carefully crafted figurines of geishas, warriors and saints.
- Signature or mark with the name of the wizard's best designs.
Blue-and-white Arita Porcelain
From about 1615, Arita on the Japanese island of Kyushu began production of the most popular dishes of the area-blue-and-white porcelain, this porcelain signed with podglazurno in cobalt blue.
- Arita porcelain China was stronger, but its easier to scratch.
- Frequently used free interpretation of popular Chinese patterns with colors and shapes on the porcelain of the late M.
- Background pattern on blue-and-white porcelain in Arita usually dense and complex.
- On the inside of the neck of the jar you can define rudeness to casually make icing, surface edges pretty rough, unglazed pinkish hue region has.
- Roller or a slight thickening of the vessel at the bottom indicates the Arita porcelain.
- Pieces of gravel in the bottom of the articles have appeared as a result of firing at the Japanese produced often gravel.
Gracefully modeled of porcelain produced in the 18th century near Arita. here were white figurines of children and animals, fish, dragons and ducks.
- Pure white porcelain a crock, like texture on the sugar glaze, was covered with a soft bluish glaze.
- Details of the figurines is sometimes highlighted with red-brown enamel.
- Decoration of blue and white porcelain included images of children playing, landscapes with pines, stylized foliage and geometrical patterns.
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