Restoration and Conservation
The whole fine art restoration process relates to the field of painting restoration. Restorer, operating only with paints and varnishes, does not tolerate mediocrity. Restoration and Conservation work require lots of patience and the ability to be painstaking.
These words are true in a deep level. We can only develop what has been said in the light of modern views on the scenic restoration and explain the technical principles of it.
The losses are different. It could be debris-fallout of any size and shape, holes, backache, burn marks, and finally cracked to expose the soil, greatly spoil the picture, especially if they are held responsible for the sites.
It is unlikely that there is a "master" who could restore the missing arms of Venus de Milo. Every decent-minded wizard does not undertake to write the missing pieces on some ancient work of art, with no similar data or detailed documentation. Let the best there is in pure form that came to us, without seasoning one's imagination.
The basic principle is to restore and to preserve what is left, and with the greatest care to make up what has been lost. If painting is full of defects that spoil the impression they should be eliminated, but so that it is not like a fake. Suppose that a careful examination of the restoration will be visible only to the whole thing is perceived holistically. Therefore, replenishment of lost places can only be carried out dressing their neutral colors to a common scale paintings. But it may well be the case that there is no picture of the character, for example, half of the face, and if the paint just lost part of the neutral tone of integrity will not work. Having preserved in front of the face (eyebrows, eyes, lips, ears, etc.), a skilled worker in the interest of the general impression can be trusted to make additional notes, but so that the brush does not touch the original painting.
Because the process of restoration and painting pictures of the lost places are etched, the wizard does not sinned; if the tone and texture of their choice fit as close to the author's style is not going, however, the brush on the original painting. According to documents in the future you can always set the location of the restoration. Therefore, in most cases, make filling in the tone of environmental art.
Considered inappropriate for a long time fixing craquelure have recently allowed the practice in the World Museums like - Tretyakov Gallery in cases where craquelure clearly interferes with the picture to watch. Closing craquelure became feasible after the development of the method of filling in the grid - easily removable wax paint. This can be done in neutral tones and tone painting.
Sometimes, in very rare cases, be allowed contact with the brush of restoration to the original painting. This happens when the latter has a spot of dubious origin (possibly record), which instead of removing them with a scalpel and the solvent can be retouched easily removable paint. If you have previously been partially washed away or stripped glaze, then the benefit can also be a darken these places are on the way to glaze varnish. You can do this and watercolors, followed by clearing.
Recovery of losses in certain cases can help sketches, sketches of the same artist, performed for the film, as well as clear photographs, previously made from it. Before restoring it, or otherwise responsible position, the restorer must collect and examine all useful for this material.
Picturesque places in the restoration of the lost oil paintings done in various techniques. It can be done in watercolor, gouache, and tempera paint with which filling "interbedded" and completely covered. You can recover and lacquer paint, in very rare cases, oil and wax more often used in the technique of encaustic, or cold process. Depending on the nature of painting, its texture, the restorer of the technique combines, for example, makes the training ground painted in watercolor or gouache paints and finishes filling in the varnish or wax.
The art of teaching is difficult to seal correspondence, it is the art of painting and largely depends on the abilities of the artist, yet some of these tips may be helpful.
The artist-restorer works only within the boundaries of the lost space, so it is a smear may not be so free, broad and bold, which a smear of the original master is often. In addition, the restorer must submit letters to the author's manner of painting restored. Developed a unique method of restoration, even strokes, similar to the manner. To sum up the ground in gouache or watercolor applied to the smallest point, closely next to one another. These points are of different colors that are close to the tones of the original painting. At some distance points merge into one general tone of the entire charging the same tone with the neighboring colors. With this method of "merging" get better than in the case where ordinary paint over the place lost strokes, even close to the manner of the master. These special strokes, however, are only a preparation. They make a little lighter than it should, since the coating them with varnish (which is necessary in the process), they immediately darken. An experienced restorer should be able to calculate how much they may darken, but it is given only as a result of experience and knowledge of the properties of individual dyes.
When such training is done, the loss is slightly prescribed in the original tone and finish glaze. Residence permit in the tone of the original is an oil-varnish or wax paint. These are usually charging very successful.
In painting, a simple texture (the majority of contemporary artists), termination may be simplified - you can run an ordinary stroke. In painting a smooth, layered (e.g., Dutch) no dressing "in focus" cannot be done. It will seem dull patch, rough spot, and only a few watercolor glaze preparation can achieve the desired effect. Especially difficult are filling in the bright field of painting - in the clouds, on the body, bright robes and other dark colors - earth, trees, etc. - are sealed better.
One may wonder why oil painting restored in watercolor and how it's done? Because water does not stick to oil. It turns out that water color, superimposed in several layers of varnish and fixed, keeps the color, rather than oil paint. In the restoration is important because if the original darkened, it will be tiresome and frustrating to operate for the whole thing. It appears also that on the oily surface of the lost space to let down the ground, soaked by washing oily liquid, water may well lie down and hold firmly. To do this, only to be rubbed with garlic before work is where the paint will be imposed.
Watercolors are usually used with white. Initially, make preparations, "puantelisticheski" lighter tones are taken, with the expectation of a darkening of the varnish. When the paint dries, and it happens quickly, closing rubbed lacquer. By drying varnish continue to work in watercolor and again rubbed lacquer. In this way, applying paint in several stages, achieve the desired tone and texture. Dressings are done in gouache and tempera same methods.
Every time the oil gets dark, and if stabilizing the old layer of paint to put in the restoration of oil paint, dark will be very noticeable.
Therefore, oil paints in the restoration shall be allowed only after the removal of excess oil mixed with varnish.
On paper, the bandwidth of the squeezed tubes of paint. Paper absorbs oil, and paint will eventually take the form of semi-gloss pastes. They are placed on the palette, where in a letter to thin the paint. These colors are not so much change in tone, and therefore more suitable for incorporation. There is a higher grade oils, specially treated - they vary less, but because it is difficult to give a soluble oil is hardened, the better to enjoy the restorations colors, which can then be easily removed without any risk to the original paint layer. Refueling an oil-varnish paints are often made of watercolor or tempera training, then they better reach the goals.